Language is a wonderfully rich vehicle for communication. Language is composed of familiar, simple thoughts that individual words can represent, and complicated, less familiar thoughts are represented by longer phrases and sentences. We can use it to convey commands and wishes, to tell lies and to tell truths, to vent our emotions, to formulate ideas and to influence our hearers . We can even use language to communicate with ourselves in fact such self-communication seems to constitute much of what we call thinking. In our own particular culture such talking to oneself is permissible as long as we do it silently, it becomes a problem only if we are caught doing it out loud.
Languages typically have about four dozen phonemes, about the same number of signalling sounds that primates have. The difference is that a single primate signal isn’t combined with other signals, but rather communicates a complete important idea. Conversely, human language strings combinations of meaningless phonemes into sound sequences that become hundreds of thousands of meaningful words — and strings of such words into sentences and stories that are even more complex. The information in human language is thus not coded into the sounds (and letters), but rather into the sequence of the sounds/letters, and the length of the sequence (do, dog, god, good, etc.).
Language is a system of system. Language is not a collection of sounds and forms at random but a highly organized system in which each unit has its place and value. Each sound is related to other sounds, each word is related to other words to make meaning. Human Language is an arbitrary phenomenon. There is no natural connection or relationship between a word and its meaning. The signifier and the signified are brought together arbitrarily. Human language is organized at two levels: Sound production and its Meaning. At the level of sound productions or individual sounds like a, b, c, d, e ….. But none of these individual sounds have any meaning in themselves. Their meaning comes from the meaningful combination to produce words.
Language serves in expressing individual needs and urges; it brings an individual into relationship with the external world. So we use several sequential coding systems to communicate information within our generation, and a similarly organized genetic coding system to create and maintain the children who will become the next generation. Did our brain look within its own biological coding system to create our various awesomely complex but elegantly simple communication systems? Scientists cracked the DNA code only 50 years ago, but language/music/mathematics emerged eons ago.
However to summarise in short every creature strives to communicate with its own kind. One of the ways in which this need is fulfilled is by expressing thoughts in the medium of language. Language is the bridge between individuals that tells them they are needed, that they are not alone. Language thus gives us self-expression and by extension, identity. Language is a systematic and conventional means of human communication by way to vocal sounds. Language is a system governed by rules. All languages have common set of systems, like the principles, rules, features and processes that are universal.